B 2 BStudies

Top 5 Recent Studies and Reviews on Berries and Flavonoids

Need another pair of eyes to find the most recent studies and reviews on berries and flavonoids?

The Berry Room will highlight newly published research. You are also invited to send reviews of new studies for our product development readers.

Here are my top 5 picks for the most interesting studies and reviews published in the first two weeks of 2016.

1- Bahramsoltani R, Sodagari HR, Farzaei MH, Abdolghaffari AH, Gooshe M, Rezaei N. The preventive and therapeutic potential of natural polyphenols on influenza. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2016 Jan;14(1):57-80. doi:10.1586/14787210.2016.1120670

Natural polyphenols have been demonstrated to be active against influenza viruses. This paper offers a comprehensive review of natural polyphenolic products used worldwide for the management of influenza infection. It also looks at cellular and molecular mechanisms by which polyphenols supress the virus replication cycle, viral hemagglutination, viral adhesion and penetration into the host cells, also intracellular transductional signalling pathways.

The authors conclude: “. Based on cellular, animal, and human evidence obtained from several studies, the current paper demonstrates that natural polyphenolic compounds possess potential effects on both prevention and treatment of influenza, which can be used as adjuvant therapy with conventional chemical drugs for the management of influenza and its complications.”

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2- Ho GT, Zou YF, Aslaksen TH, Wangensteen H, Barsett H. Structural characterization of bioactive pectic polysaccharides from elderflowers (Sambuci flos). Carbohydr. Polym. 2016 Jan 1;135:128-37. doi: 10.1016/j.

This study investigated the immunomodulating effect of pectic-polysaccharides from elderflowers.

A strong complement fixating activity as well as microphage stimulating activity was observed from extracts of the leaves. Removal of arabinose and 1,3,6-Gal linkages by weak acid hydrolysis lead to a reduced bioactivity from the extract. Enhanced bioactivity was observed after removal of estergroups by NaOH.

The authors wrote: “Relating linkage analysis to the results of the bioactivity tests, led to the assumption that the branched moieties of the arabinogalactans linked to rhamnogalacturonan region, is important for the immunomodulating activity seen in elderflowers. No cytotoxicity was observed”

3- Rehman SU, Shah SA, Ali T, Chung JI, Kim MO. Anthocyanins Reversed D-Galactose-Induced Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation Mediated Cognitive Impairment in Adult Rats. Mol Neurobiol. 2016 Jan 6.

The study investigated the protective effect of anthocyanin neuroprotection against D-galactose-induced oxidative and inflammatory response in the hippocampus and cortex regions of adult rats. It also explored the potential mechanism of action.

The results indicated that anthocyanins treatment significantly improved behavioural performance of D-gal-treated rats in Morris water maze and Y-maze tests.

The study also indicated that anthocyanins inhibited activated astrocytes and neuroinflammation via suppression of various inflammatory markers including p-NF- K B, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in the hippocampus and cortex regions of D-gal-treated rats brain.

The authors conclude: “This data suggests that anthocyanins could be a safe and promising anti-oxidant and anti-neuroinflammatory agent for age-related neurodegenerative “

4- Yamakawa MY, Uchino K, Watanabe Y, Adachi T, Nakanishi M, Ichino H, Hongo K, Mizobata T, Kobayashi S, Nakashima K, Kawata Y. Anthocyanin suppresses the toxicity of Aβ deposits through diversion of molecular forms in in vitro and in vivo models of Alzheimer’s disease. Nutr Neurosci. 2016 Jan;19(1):32-42. doi: 10.1179/1476830515Y.0000000042

In this study, researchers sought to investigate effects of anthocyanoside extracts (Vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanoside (VMA)) obtained from bilberry on the in vitro progression of Aβ fibril formation with the in vivo effects of this compound on AD pathogenesis.

A very interesting paradoxical effect was observed in the study. While the mice which received the extract retained their cognitive ability, an increase in insoluble deposits was observed compared with mice raised on a control diet. These deposits, however, were non-toxic, as opposed to the toxic amyloid beta peptides.

The authors conclude: “The paradoxical increase in insoluble deposits caused by VMA suggests that these polyphenols divert Aβ aggregation to an alternate, non-toxic form. This finding underscores the complex effects that polyphenol compounds may exert on amyloid deposition in vivo.”

5- Moosavi F, Hosseini R, Saso L, Firuzi O. Modulation of neurotrophic signalling pathways by polyphenols. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2016; 10: 23–42. Published online 2015 Dec 21. doi:  10.2147/DDDT.S96936

This review looks at studies on the effects of polyphenols on neuronal survival, growth, proliferation and differentiation, and the signalling pathways involved in these neurotrophic actions.

As the authors point out, several polyphenols including flavonoids such as baicalein, daidzein, luteolin, and nobiletin as well as nonflavonoid polyphenols such as auraptene, carnosic acid, curcuminoids, and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives including caffeic acid phentyl ester enhance neuronal survival and promote neurite outgrowth in vitro, a hallmark of neuronal differentiation.

The review presents underlying mechanisms and biochemical pathways of polyphenols. The authors wrote: “In conclusion, a better understanding of the neurotrophic effects of polyphenols and the concomitant modulations of signalling pathways is useful for designing more effective agents for management of neurodegenerative diseases.”

The full review is available in the link.

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