Antiviral/Antibacterial benefits

· Kong F. Pilot clinical study on a proprietary elderberry extract: efficacy in addressing influenza symptoms. Online Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacokinetics. 2009;5:32-43.

· Roxas M, Jurenka J. Colds and influenza: a review of diagnosis and conventional, botanical, and nutritional considerations. Altern Med Rev. 2007 Mar;12(1):25-48.

· Roschek B, Fink RC, McMichael MD, et al. Elderberry flavonoids bind to and prevent H1N1 infection in vitro. Phytochemistry. 2009;70:1255-61.

· Uncini Manganelli RE, Zaccaro L, Tomei PE. Antiviral activity in vitro of Urtica dioica L., Parietaria diffusa M. et K. and Sambucus nigra L. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Apr 26;98(3):323-7.

· Zakay-Rones Z, Thom E, Wollan T, Wadstein J. Randomized study of the efficacy and safety of oral elderberry extract in the treatment of influenza A and B virus infections. J Int Med Res. 2004;32:132-40.

· Karimi, S, Mohammadi, A & Dadras, H 2014. The effect of Echinacea purpurea and Sambucus nigra L. on H9N2 avian influenza virus in infected chicken embryo. Veterinarski Archiv, vol. 84, no. 2, pp. 153-165.

· Kinoshita, E, Hayashi, K, Katayama, H, Hayashi, T & Obata, A 2012.Anti-influenza effects of elderberry juice and its fractions. Bioscience, Biotechnology & Biochemistry, vol. 76, no. 9, pp. 1633-1638.

· Fink, RC, Roschek, B Jr, Alberte RS 2009. HIV type-1 entry inhibitors with a new mode of action. Antiviral Chemistry & Chemotherapy, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 243-255.

· Krawitz, C, Mraheil, MA, Stein, M, Imirzalioglu, C, Domann, E, Pleschka, S & Hain T 2011. Inhibitory activity of a standardized elderberry liquid extract against clinicially-relevant human respiratory bacterial pathogens and influenza A and B viruses. BMC Complementary & Alternative Medicine, vol. 11, no. 16. (Sponsored by IPRONA AG SPA)

· Hearst, C, McCollum, G, Nelson, D, Ballard, LM, Millar, BC, Goldsmith CE, Rooney, PJ, Loughrey, A, Moore, JE & Rao JR 2010. Antibacterial activity of elder (Sambucus nigra L.) flower or berry against hospital pathogens, Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, vol. 4, no. 17, pp. 1805-1809.

Immune Modulation/Anti-inflammatory

· Badescu et al, Effects of Sambucus nigra and Aronia melanocarpa extracts on immune system disorders within diabetes mellitus. PharmBiol.2015 Vol 53 (4: 533-9)

· Barak, V, Birkenfeld, S, Halperin, T & Kalickman, I 2002. The effect of herbal remedies on the production of human inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Journal of the Israel Medical Association, vol. 4, no. 11 (supplementary), pp. 919-922.

· Farrell et al. , Black elderberry extract attenuates inflammation and metabolic dysfunction in diet-induced obese mice. Br J Nutr. 2015 Vol 114(8), Pp. 1223-1231

Antioxidant: Polyphenols/Flavonoids/Anthocyanins/Bioavailability

· Keller, RB 2009. Nutrition and Diet Research Progress: Flavonoids: Biosynthesis, Biological Effects and Dietary Sources. Nova Science Publishers, New York, NY.

· Milbury, PE, Cao, G, Prior, RL & Blumberg, J 2002. Bioavailability of elderberry anthocyanins. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, vol. 123, no. 8, pp. 997-1006.

· Kanter, MM 1994. Free radicals, exercise, and antioxidant supplementation, International Journal of Sport Nutrition, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 205-220.

· Christensen, KB, Petersen RK, Kristiansen, K & Christensen LP 2010, Identification of bioactive compounds from flowers of black elder (Sambucus nigra L.) that activate the human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) y. Phytotherapy Research, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. S129-S132.

· Nakajima JI, Tanaka I, Seo S, Yamazaki M, Saito K., LC/PDA/ESI-MS Profiling and Radical Scavenging Activity of Anthocyanins in Various Berries. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2004; (5): 241-247

· Wu X, Gu L, Prior RL, McKay S., Characterization of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins in some cultivars of Ribes, Aronia, and Sambucus and antioxidant capacity. J Agric Food Chem. 2004; 52 (26): 7846-56

Cardiovascular Support/Metabolic Syndrom/Diabetes/Blood Sugar regulation

· Ciocoiu, M, Badescu, L, Badulescu, D & Badescu, M 2012a. Intervention of Sambucus nigra polyphenolic extract in experimental arterial hypertension, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, vol. 64, pp. 244-247.

· Ciocoiu, M, Badescu, L, Badulescu, O, Tutunaru, D & Badescu, M 2012b. Protective intervention of Sambucus nigra polyphenols in the diabetic heart. Annals of the Romanian Society for Cell Biology, vol. 17, pp. 312-317.

· Ciocoiu, M, Serban, D, Badescu, L, Tutunaru, D, Badulescu, O & Badescu, M 2010. The effects of Sambucus nigra extract in experimental arterial hypertension. Annals of the Romanian Society for Cell Biology, vol. 15, pp. 87–92.

· Porta, S, Wurzinger, R & Wintersteiger, R 2007. Determination of physiological effects of elderberry biopolyphenols in humans using ICU equipment. Berry Health Symposium.

· Farrell et al. , Anthocyanin-rich black elderberry extract improves markers of HDL function and reduces aortic cholesterol in hyperlipidemic mice. Food Funct. 2015 Vol 6(4), Pp. 1278-1287

· Gray AM, Abdel-Wahab YH, Flatt PR. The traditional plant treatment, Sambucus nigra(elder), exhibits insulin-like and insulin-releasing actions in vitro. J Nutr. 2000;130(1):15-20.

· Badescu, L, Badulescu, O, Badescu, M & Ciocoiu, M 2012, Mechanism by Sambucus nigra extract improves bone mineral density in experimental diabetes, Evidence Based Complementary Alternative Medicine, epub 2012 Sep 13.

· Raafat et al. , Acute and subchronic in-vivo effects of Ferula hermonis L. and Sambucus nigra L. and their potential active isolates in a diabetic mouse model of neuropathic pain. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2015 Vol 15, Pp. 257

· Bahttacharya et al. Bioactive components from flowers of Sambucus nigra L. increase glucose uptake in primary porcine myotube cultures and reduce fat accumulation in Caenorhabditis elegans. J Agric Food Chem. 2013 Vol 61(46), Pp. 11033-40


· Thole, JM, Kraft, TFB, Sueiro, A, Kang, YH, Gills, JJ, Cuendt, M, Pezzuto, JM, Seigler, DS & Lila, MA 2006. A comparative evaluation of the anticancer properties of European and American elderberry fruits. Journal of Medicinal Food, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 498-504.

· Lamprecht, M, Obermayer, G, Steinbauer, K, Cvim, G, Hofmann, L, Ledinski, G, Greilberger JF & Hallstroem, S 2013. Supplementation with a juice powder concentrate and exercise decrease oxidation and inflammation, and improve the microcirculation in obese women: randomised controlled trial data, British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 110, no. 9, pp. 1685-1695.

· Christensen, KB, Petersen RK, Kristiansen, K & Christensen LP 2010, Identification of bioactive compounds from flowers of black elder (Sambucus nigra L.) that activate the human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) y. Phytotherapy Research, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. S129-S132.


· Wright CI, Van-Buren L, Kroner CI, Koning MM. Herbal medicines as diuretics: A review of the scientific evidence. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Oct 8;114(1):1-31.

· Vlachojannis, JE, Cameron, M & Chrubasik S 2010.A systematic review of the Sambuci fructus effect and efficacy profiles. Phytotherapy Research, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 1-8.

· Sidor, A & Gramza-Michalowska, A 2014. Advanced research on the antioxidant and health benefit of elderberry (Sambucus nigra) in food – a review. Journal of Functional Foods

· American Botanical Council 2015. The ABC clinical guide to Elder Berry.

· Ulbricht, C, Basch, E, Cheung, L, Goldberg, H, Hammerness, P, Isaac, R, Khalsa, KPS, Romm, A, Rychlik, I, Marghese, M, Weissner, W, Windsor, RC & Wortley, J 2014. An evidence-based systematic review of elderberry and elderflower (Sambucus nigra) by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration,   Journal of Dietary Supplements, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 80-120.

· Blochwich M. Anatomia Sambuci, 1644: The Anatomy of the Elder; Reissued in 2010 by Iprona AG